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Survey and Assessment of Available Maya Language Pedagogical Materials

A brief survey of the available pedagogical materials for Maya in English with secondary reference of resources in Spanish is presented below. These materials are discussed in the following order: dictionaries, textbooks, grammars, audio-visual, and, orthography.

As may be expected for a LCTL, there are few dictionaries. Those books that are easily available in print or online/electronic formats via presses and booksellers are not full dictionaries; rather, these are glossary word lists (organized alphabetically or by common conversational topics) with a “one-to-one” English or Spanish word translations that do not provide information on the full range of meanings, uses, and contexts (e.g., Bastarrachea Manzano et al. 1975; Bevington 1995; Gonzales 2010; Litzinger and Love 1997; Máas Collí 2000; Martinez Huichim 2014; Montgomery 2003; Russo and Chigüela, 2018.). Of these, Martinez Huichim (2014) and Montgomery (2003) are the most comprehensive for English-Maya and Spanish-Maya respectively. Further these do not have derived or associated forms, etymologies, pronunciation guides, and examples of sentences (see Rhodes et al 2018 for analysis of dictionaries). Those texts that are full dictionaries in this sense are restricted to either colonial dictionaries, which often suffer the same critique, or specialist research dictionaries created for use by linguists (Bricker et al 1996; Barrera Vazquez 1980). They are often unwieldy volumes in size and weight. Digital versions make these significantly more useable for the classroom, but mostly for intermediate to advanced learners. There are several dictionaries that are restricted to verbs and their morphology (Ayres and Pfeiler 1997; Bricker and Po’ot Yah 1981; Blair 1964; Shigeto 2009; Briceño Chel 2006); unfortunately these are not designed in a pedagogical manner such as the famous “501 verbs in Language X,” to teach the full range of verb paradigms. Although designed as research tools for linguists and other scholars, they nonetheless do not provide the full range of conjugational forms and thus do not provide clarity on Maya aspect grammar. Rather they are organized in a way that reproduces the ambiguous or muddied understandings that the proposed pedagogical framework seeks to address.


For English speaking learners, there is only one comprehensive textbook, which includes audio, that has been the primary text for nearly sixty years (Blair and Vermont-Salas 1965). This manuscript is written in the International Phonetic Alphabet developed for Maya by linguists and was never really publicly available to non-specialist readers in the sense that it was never published by an academic or popular press; rather this typewritten manuscript circulated in microfilm and printed photocopy versions for free via the Inter-Library Loan system of US higher education system. It was and still is and obscure resource that only the true-blood Maya scholar is aware. In 1993 a version of the same text but written in contemporary orthography began to be sold at a steep price via the Institute for the Study of the America website (The Consortium in Latin American and Caribbean Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University), an organization hosts a Maya language summer program (https://isa.unc.edu/maya-resources/ ).

The Blair and Vermont-Salas (1965) textbook clearly has many exceptional qualities, which have sustained its use for decades. Its value is also attested to it being published online in a new format by John Lucy with support from the US Department of Education Title VI funds, that includes all the text and audio (Blair and Vermont-Salas 2019). Even though the text as a whole is written in a pedagogical style whose efficacy has mostly endured in the majority of exercises and learning activities, the great weakness is the 1960s explanation of Maya grammar. There are times where the language is too opaque, either due to the linguistic or pedagogical theory of the day; as well the grammar from one lesson often seems to collide if not contradict that of subsequent lessons. At the time of writing the textbook, one can assume that the audience of learners primarily consisted if not of linguists then only other academic researchers. The pedagogical strategy seeks to only explain the very minimal corresponding to each lesson, thus pre-empting an encompassing and comprehensive framework to serve as a solid foundation for ever-increasing knowledge. Crucially absent is a coherent framework of the Maya aspect system and sentence syntax.

The present author (of this article) used the Spoken Maya Lessons as a self-guided learner of Maya in the 1980s and 1990s and then as the textbook to teach Maya. These courses used complementary grammatical materials developed by the author to explain, clarity, and go beyond the grammar of the Blair and Vermont-Salas textbook. These supplementary materials have developed into a separate textbook (Author n.d.). This article presents one dimension of the pedagogical framework of this new textbook.

Textbooks in Spanish are written for two audiences. The first is comprised of children or non-literate adult Maya speakers who are taking courses within the Mexican educational system. The second is an audience of academic researchers and scholars. Thus, these textbooks have an additional problem for the English speaking learner or even for Mexicans who are not from the Yucatán Peninsula: The textbooks, written by speakers, presuppose that the learner is a heritage speaker of Maya or at least that they are immersed with Maya culture. On this basis, these textbooks in a certain sense do not manifest an LCTL pedagogy. Furthermore, both of these also suffer the basic problem noted above: If discussed at all there is a reduction of Maya grammar to the categories and processes of Spanish grammar or a lack of coherent explanation (see next section).


Grammars of Maya began to be written in Spanish during the colonial period (see Tozzer 1921; Rhodes 2016; Smailus 1989). Grammars in the 20th century no doubt used these earlier texts as foundations as the analyses used the linguistic theory of the day to describe Maya. Beside this key point, is the fact that the existing grammars in English are written either in the colonial orthography modified in the 19th and 20th centuries (Andrade 1955, n.d.; Bolles and Bolles 2001) or the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA; e.g., Blair 1964; Bricker and Po’ot Yah 1981; Bricker et al. 1996). These are written for the specialist versed in linguistic understandings of language processes. They are not written for the teacher of the language to learn grammar so as to be able to teach it within the contexts of their classroom. These texts are not even written in a “let’s learn Maya grammar” pedagogical style. The field of study definitely lacks a “Maya Grammar for Dummies” textbook. Nonetheless, learning grammar is necessary at least for the teacher of a language. In the case of Maya with its specific attributes of being agglutinating, having an aspect system as well as split ergativity, and not having a copula, grammar is essential for the long term learner to advance to intermediate and advanced levels.

The pedagogical framework of Maya grammar specifically builds on the work of Bricker and Po’ot Yah (1981) and Bricker et al. (1998). Also of significant use is verb dictionary created by Shigeto (2009). Other sources that used to check information but were otherwise too difficult to use, either because of the orthography or due to the linguistic terminology are Bolles and Andrade (1955), respectively. The study of the verb morphology and conjugation by Ayres and Pfeiler (1997) is worth noting: It offers a framework approaching that presented here. However, the author did not use this work in the development of the pedagogical grammar of this article. The simple reason is that the author could not make use of the text due to a convergence of reasons: the density of the linguistic terminology became all the more difficult for being written in Spanish. Furthermore, the explanation of the grammatical aspect system is presented in fragments and pieces, that is literally word by word without a comprehensive view of the entire organizational framing of verb paradigms. At the very least, this article contributes such a panoramic view of Maya aspect grammar.


Audio-visual Resources

LCTLs can be sorted into two groups. There are those that are not commonly taught but nonetheless are widely known via popular media, films, online video services, music, and so on. Thus many learners have extensive experience hearing or watching the language being spoken and have some sense, perhaps exaggeratedly stereotypical, of the language. The other group of LCTLs are those that have relatively very minimal presence in the global communications networks. The presence of Maya on this world stage of languages was inaugurated by Mel Gibson’s Hollywood film, Apocalypto. While the governmental initiatives to promote Maya targeted children and intellectuals, this film stimulated everyday Maya speakers to have a greater awareness and interest in their language: I suspect that this is expressed in a dramatic growth of Maya language videos on the internet that show everyday life, cultural celebrations, and new music genres (e.g., Maya rap) in the Peninsula.

Among this surge of social media online are a variety of “learn Maya videos” that are created by an array of persons and organizations with a similar range of value for the learner. One example is the Open School of Ethnography and Anthropology (OSEA) Youtube Channel (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLy-un3otzqi28C-fRn6musgUFw1d3jDIH ) has a series of playlists for learning Maya, but these are designed for use within the OSEA classroom and thus would be very challenging to use without the associated textbook and instructor. Other video channels offer lessons that seem more useful for a heritage learner, while others are more impressionistic and might be categorized under the theme of “wow, listen how cool Maya sounds/Learn how to say hello!”

To complete this review, I mention the NativLang YouTube Channel created by the linguist Jürgen Bohnemeyer. Note that while these videos are quite accessible to popular audiences, the channel is devoted to teaching linguistics, not how to speak Maya. Nonetheless, there are two videos about Maya grammar, one of which directly states the underlying presupposition and understanding of Maya grammar that motivates the proposed pedagogical framework: “Maya Before, Maya After: How a Tenseless Language Talks Past and Future” (Bohnemeyer 2019b, see also 2019b).



There have been numerous attempts to create a single and universally accepted orthography and rules of spelling (for details see AnderBois 2018; Brody 2006; Guerretaz 2019; Lehmann 2018; Rhodes 2016). The most recent proposed set of conventions is the 2014 Normas (Briceño Chel and Can Tec 2014). However, there is no consistent conformity to this proposal and one can find an array of writing conventions still in use. Further, without a definitive, authoritative dictionary for Maya- Spanish and Spanish-Maya, much less the absence of any Maya to Maya dictionary, spelling is quite fluid and varied. This article follows the orthography and spelling of the Hocaba Maya dictionary (Bricker et al 1998) as the default setting. The Hocaba uses the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) as developed for writing Maya.



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